Biofuel and engineering microbe for cellulase production essay

However, studies reveal that SSF is the most appropriate process in developing countries due to the advantages it offers which make it a cost effective production process [ 20 ]. Also SSF provides a medium that resembles the natural habitat of fungal species, unlike Smf which is considered a violation of their habitat [ 40 ].

Biofuel and engineering microbe for cellulase production essay

Enzymes are of great importance in the industry due to their substrate and product specificity, moderate reaction conditions, minimal by-product formation and Biofuel and engineering microbe for cellulase production essay yield.

They are important ingredients in several products and production processes. The food industry expels copious amounts of processing waste annually, which is mostly lignocellulosic in nature.

Upon proper treatment, lignocellulose can replace conventional carbon sources in media preparations for industrial microbial processes, such as enzyme production.

However, wild strains of microorganisms that produce industrially important enzymes show low yield and cannot thrive on artificial substrates. The application of recombinant DNA technology and metabolic engineering has enabled researchers to develop superior strains that can not only withstand harsh environmental conditions within a bioreactor but also ensure timely delivery of optimal results.

This article gives an overview of the current complications encountered in enzyme production and how accumulating food processing waste can emerge as an environment-friendly and economically feasible solution for a choice of raw material. It also substantiates the latest techniques that have emerged in enzyme purification and recovery over the past four years.

Introduction Enzymes are biological catalysts found in all living systems. Enzymes are proteinaceous in nature and catalyse a variety of reactions. For centuries enzymes have involuntarily been used in the form of bacterial or plant extracts for making wine, cheese, bread, beer and vinegar, and for manufacturing commodities such as leather and linen.

However, it has only been a few decades since purified enzymes have found extensive application in manufacturing processes [ 1 ]. A major issue with the application of enzymes in industrial processes is the cost associated with it.

Large-scale enzyme production is a capital-intensive process and the application of enzymes in different manufacturing processes indirectly influences the cost of the finished product. Much of the annual operating cost of an enzyme production facility is attributed to plant equipment and installation Figure 1.

Lignocellulose is a great source of cheap carbohydrates and thus has been used over the past decades as a raw material for the production of a range of high value products, such as bioethanol, organic acids, enzymes and biodegradable plastics [ 3 ].

Lignocellulose is made up of lignin and carbohydrate polymers, like cellulose and hemicellulose, along with pectin and traces of salts, minerals and ash [ 4 ]. Using food material for valorization has sparked a worldwide debate, encouraging scientists to look for other feasible alternatives [ 3 ].

New ways of producing biofuels

Most of the processing waste generated by the food industry is inedible and lignocellulosic in nature [ 5 ]. Due to its complex structure, lignocellulose is highly recalcitrant and cannot be directly used for microbial processes. However, subjecting lignocellulose to pretreatments and enzymatic hydrolysis releases fermentable sugars, which can utilized by enzyme-producing microbes for their growth and sustenance [ 6 ].

Biofuel and engineering microbe for cellulase production essay

This article reviews the latest technology involved in the production of cost effective, efficient enzymes by the valorization of food industry waste. Market Potential The global enzyme industry is growing at a fast pace. Enzymes are predominantly used for the production of several products that we use in our day-to-day lives [ 8 ].

Besides, new-found interest in bioenergy has led to an increased demand for enzymes applicable in the biofuel sector [ 9 ]. Enzymes can be prepared for customized applications for different industrial processes with the help of recombinant DNA technology and protein engineering.

Therefore, decreasing the cost of enzymes can increase the market potential of biofuels and also other value-added products [ 10 ].

Apart from the high carbohydrate content, the additional nutrients found in food industry wastes make them ideal media components for microbial growth. Food processing waste can be categorized into six types, based on its source of origin: Meat, fish and dairy waste are outside the scope of this article.

All the other categories are rich in carbohydrates and differ from one another with respect to factors such as structure, chemical composition, moisture content, etc. While the majority of the composition is dominated by non-starch carbohydrates and lignin, grain waste varieties also contain high amounts of proteins, lipids, starch and glucans.

The exact percentage composition of grain varieties differs according to the season of harvest [ 111213 ]. Apart from polysaccharides, proteins and lipids food industry wastes, such as apple pomace, are also a major source of dietary fibre, polyphenols and bio-active compounds [ 1415 ].

The diversity of compounds found in food industry waste can result in some of them acting as growth enhancers for microbial processes. Banana and plantain pulp extract was found to promote the growth of gram-positive bacteria [ 16 ].

Bioeconomy is a concept introduced by the European Commission inwhich includes conversion of food processing waste into value-added products [ 3 ]. This is backed by initiatives by the European Union to tackle food waste thorough legislation and reduce the amount of food waste sent to landfill from 40 metric tonnes to 4 metric tonnes by Food Industry Waste Global Status Food waste is generated from the non-products flow of raw materials, whose collection and processing for reuse cost more than their economic value, and are thus discarded as waste.

Waste produced by the agriculture and manufacturing sector is in a concentrated manner, which is easier to collect, distribute and valorise to form value-added products.

Steps taken by the industry for higher sustainability, processing efficiency and improving green credentials have led to the development of innovative strategies for the valorization of food waste [ 19 ].

Biofuel and engineering microbe for cellulase production essay

Considerable efforts are being made by the European Union, with the implementation of strict laws and high cost associated with the disposal of food waste as landfill, which encourages its application for the production of value-added products [ 318 ]. Most wastes generated from food processing industries are lignocellulosic in nature.

Cellulose is a major polysaccharide found in lignocellulose and is made up of repeating glucose units. Besides cellulose, plant-based food wastes are rich in pectin, inulin, xylan, mannan, glucan, starch, etc.Cellulase Enzymes for the Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels and Chemicals Improvements to Saccharification Enzymes allow for a faster, more stable and .

Srivastava et al. (Application of Cellulases in Biofuels Industries: An Overview) 59 Among various advanced strategies for cellulase production, solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a potential and.

Genetic engineering and the law essay Biofuel and engineering microbe for cellulase production essay.

Microbes and climate change – Microbes and biofuels

Procrastination This is why the start of the conclusion paragraph in an essay should explain precisely why the issue is important. For example, you could write, “This research on renewable energy is important because it could make the.

Microbial cellulases Production, applications and challenges especially in the direction of improving the process economics of enzyme production. Keywords: Biofuel, Cellulase, Endoglucanase, β-Glucosidase, Humicola, Cellulase systems of microbes can be generally.

Cellulase is any of several enzymes produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, and protozoans that catalyze cellulolysis, the decomposition of cellulose and of some related name is also used for any naturally occurring mixture or complex of various such enzymes, that act serially or synergistically to decompose cellulosic material.

Jul 29,  · The prospects of cellulase-producing bacteria for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass. Increasing enzyme thermostability is one step towards lowering biofuel production costs. its use in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass is still premature and offers great potential.

Cellulase - Wikipedia