It is a new and somewhat embarrassing experience for me to appear as lecturer before students of the New World. I assume that I owe this honor to the association of my name with the theme of psychoanalysis, and consequently it is of psychoanalysis that I shall aim to speak. I shall attempt to give you in very brief form an historical survey of the origin and further development of this new method of research and cure. Granted that it is a merit to have created psychoanalysis, it is not my merit.
Psychoanalyse first started to receive serious attention under Sigmund Freud, who formulated his own theory of psychoanalysis in Vienna in the s. Freud was a neurologist trying to find an effective treatment for patients with neurotic or hysterical symptoms. He then wrote a monograph about this subject.
Charcot had introduced hypnotism as an experimental research tool and developed the photographic representation of clinical symptoms.
Breuer wrote that many factors that could result in such symptoms, including various types of emotional trauma, and he also credited work by others such as Pierre Janet ; while Freud contended that at the root of hysterical symptoms were repressed memories of distressing occurrences, almost always having direct or indirect sexual associations.
It remained unpublished in his lifetime. This became the received historical account until challenged by several Freud scholars in the latter part of the 20th century who argued that he had imposed his preconceived notions on his patients. Freud formulated his second psychological theory— which hypothesises that the unconscious has or is a "primary process" consisting of symbolic and condensed thoughts, and a "secondary process" of logical, conscious thoughts.
This theory was published in his book, The Interpretation of Dreams.
|10 Things You May Not Know About “Lawrence of Arabia”||This rigorous sexual morality did not, however, prevent Victorians from speaking about sexuality. The large, urban, professional middle class—the bourgeoisie—had an intense moral preoccupation with sexuality, particularly in women and children.|
|Subject Matter of Psychoanalysis||Click here for more information on defense mechanisms.|
|Psychoanalysis - Wikipedia||His father, Jakob Freud —a wool merchant, had two sons, Emanuel — and Philipp —by his first marriage. He proved an outstanding pupil and graduated from the Matura in with honors.|
This "topographic theory" is still popular in much of Europe, although it has fallen out of favour in much of North America. Freud and Jung in the center InFreud published Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality  in which he laid out his discovery of so-called psychosexual phases: His early formulation included the idea that because of societal restrictions, sexual wishes were repressed into an unconscious state, and that the energy of these unconscious wishes could be turned into anxiety or physical symptoms.
Therefore, the early treatment techniques, including hypnotism and abreaction, were designed to make the unconscious conscious in order to relieve the pressure and the apparently resulting symptoms.
This method would later on be left aside by Freud, giving free association a bigger role. In On Narcissism  Freud turned his attention to the subject of narcissism. Still using an energic system, Freud characterized the difference between energy directed at the self versus energy directed at others, called cathexis.
Byin "Mourning and Melancholia", he suggested that certain depressions were caused by turning guilt-ridden anger on the self.
ByFreud addressed the power of identification with the leader and with other members in groups as a motivation for behavior Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego. Also, it was the first appearance of his "structural theory" consisting three new concepts id, ego, and superego.
Hence, Freud characterised repression as both a cause and a result of anxiety. Inin Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety, Freud characterised how intrapsychic conflict among drive and superego wishes and guilt caused anxietyand how that anxiety could lead to an inhibition of mental functions, such as intellect and speech.
According to Freud, the Oedipus complex, was at the centre of neurosis, and was the foundational source of all art, myth, religion, philosophy, therapy—indeed of all human culture and civilization. It was the first time that anyone in the inner circle had characterised something other than the Oedipus complex as contributing to intrapsychic development, a notion that was rejected by Freud and his followers at the time.
Within a year, Sigmund Freud died. Led by Heinz HartmannKris, Rappaport and Lowenstein, the group built upon understandings of the synthetic function of the ego as a mediator in psychic functioning[ jargon ].
Hartmann in particular distinguished between autonomous ego functions such as memory and intellect which could be secondarily affected by conflict and synthetic functions which were a result of compromise formation[ jargon ].
These "Ego Psychologists" of the s paved a way to focus analytic work by attending to the defenses mediated by the ego before exploring the deeper roots to the unconscious conflicts.History s. The idea of psychoanalysis (German: Psychoanalyse) first started to receive serious attention under Sigmund Freud, who formulated his own theory of psychoanalysis in Vienna in the s.
Freud was a neurologist trying to find an effective treatment for patients with neurotic or . Sigmund Freud is best known as the creator of the therapeutic technique known as psychoanalysis.
The Austrian-born psychiatrist greatly contributed to the understanding of human psychology in areas such as the unconscious mind, sexuality, and dream interpretation.
Freud was also among the first to. History and development A short introduction to the history of the Sigmund Freud University In , the Private University Act passed the Austrian Parliament, making it possible to .
This is a delightful little book that succintly explains and describes the origins and development of psychoanalysis.
The book is designed for the novice with an interest in learning some basic on the ideas and thoughts of Sigmund Freud/5(3).
Watch video · Sigmund Freud (May 6, to September 23, ) was an Austrian neurologist who developed psychoanalysis, a method through which an analyst unpacks unconscious conflicts based on the free associations, dreams and fantasies of the patient.
by Sigmund Freud () Lecture: | 1 I assume that I owe this honor to the association of my name with the theme of psychoanalysis, and consequently it is of psychoanalysis that I shall aim to speak. We must now examine the history of this case and its treatment, which can be found in detail in "Studien über Hysterie," later published.